The International Space Station will provide an orbital laboratory for long-term research, where one of the fundamental forces of nature — gravity — is greatly reduced. In addition, world class research in biology, chemistry, physics, ecology and medicine can be conducted using the most modern tools available. The medical benefits of conducting science in space could lead to new drugs and a new understanding of the building blocks of life. The effects of microgravity eliminate the pressure of gravity on experiments here on Earth. As a result, cancer treatments can be tested on living cell cultures without risk to patients. Researchers also expect a thorough understanding of the effects of long-term exposure on humans in microgravity. Industrial benefits may lead to stronger, lighter metals and more powerful computer chips. The absence of convection — the currents that cause warm air or fluid to rise and cool air or fluid to sink — in space will allow different materials to be studied more thoroughly in orbit than on Earth. Fluids and flames will behave differently in microgravity as well. While some experiments will take place inside the space station, others will take place externally. These experiments will help reveal the effects of long-term exposure to the external space environment. Understanding phenomena such as extreme temperatures and micrometeorites will guide engineers toward enhancing spacecraft design. Earth observations will allow researchers to study changes to our environment whether they are natural or human causes. Other benefits may also lead to advanced weather forecasting systems and the most accurate atomic clocks. Commercialization of space research will allow industries to explore new products and services. Finally, the result of such innovation will create new jobs here on Earth and in space.